Click here to Skip to main content
Loading
AskARC Logo
Chemistry Title Banner

 

 

Chemistry 311 - Strategies for Problem Solving in Chemistry

Course Topics

The topics for Chem 311 are dependent on the course with which it is taken. For the courses listed, the topics are typically allocated as follows (approximate number of lecture and lab hours spent on each topic are shown in the left columns):

Chem. 305:
Lec
Topic
2
Introduction to chemistry, the scientific method, and solving of chemically related problems.
2
Concept of uncertainty in measurements and use of significant figures in mathematical operations.
2
Metric System of units, unit analysis, and density of liquids and solids.
2
Types, classifications, and properties of matter; physical and chemical changes; and energies associated with such changes.
2
Structure of the atom, emission line spectra, concept of energy levels and sublevels; and electronic configurations of elements and ions.
2
The Periodic Table, periodic properties, and families of elements.
2
Nomenclature of elements, ions, acids, molecular and ionic compounds; and identifying ions in solution.
2
Classifications, balancing of chemical reactions, and predicting products.
2
The mole concept and its applications in the calculations of empirical formula, molecular formula and analysis of alum.
2
Stoichiometry, limiting and excess reagents, and decomposition of baking soda.
2
The gaseous state, gas laws, vapor pressure concept, and molar volume of hydrogen gas.
2
Concept of chemical bonding using electron dot formula and electronic configurations, shapes of molecules, bond angles, polarity based on geometry and electronegativity of atoms; and use of molecular models.
2
Solutions, solution concentrations, dilutions, solution stoichiometry, and analysis of salt water.
2
Intermolecular forces especially hydrogen bonding and its consequences in biological systems, boiling points, melting points, and solubility of substances.
2
Concept of osmosis, isotonic solutions, reverse osmosis, applications in dialysis, combating dehydration, and desalination of water.
2
Theories and properties of acids and bases, standardization and titration, pH concept, and analysis of vinegar.
2
Electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions: strong, weak, and non-electrolytes.
2.5
Classify organic compounds, recognize functional groups when they appear in an organic structure, and relate physical and chemical properties based on functional groups present.
2.5
Biochemistry, four major classes of biological compounds, and paper chromatography.
2
Nuclear Chemistry, radioactivity, half-life, artificial radioactivity, and radionuclide applications

Chem. 306:

Lec
Topic
2.5
Introduction: review of chemical bonding, structure, shapes, polarity, and intermolecular forces. Alkanes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, and reactions.
2.5
Alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, and reactions.
2.5
Alcohols, ethers, phenols, and thiols: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, and reactions.
2.5
Aldehydes and ketones: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, and reactions.
2.5
Carboxylic acids and derivatives (esters, amides, and related compounds): structure, nomenclature, physical properties, and reactions. Inorganic esters: structure, physical properties, and reactions.
2.5
Aliphatic and aromatic amines: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, and reactions. Heterocycles structure and nomenclature. Alkaloids applications and uses.
2.5
Carbohydrates: structure, nomenclature, classes, chirality, stereochemistry, reactions.
2.5
Lipids: structure, nomenclature, classes, biological applications, reactions.
2.5
Amino acids: nomenclature, chirality, acid/base properties, buffers, pH, isoelectric points, electrophoresis. Proteins structure, denaturing, hydrolysis, biological importance.
2.5
Enzymes, vitamins, hormones, and neurotransmitters: biological importance and uses.
2.5
Introduction to biochemical energetics and metabolism. Catabolism, anabolism, common metabolic pathways (citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation), biological reducing agents, adenosine triphosphate.
3
Carbohydrate metabolism: hydrolysis of polysaccharides, digestion, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and calculation of energy obtained from various pathways.
2.5
Lipid metabolism: lipoproteins and lipid transport, glycerol metabolism, storage and mobilization of triacylglycerols, fatty acid oxidation, ketone bodies, and biosynthesis of fatty acids.
2.5
Protein and amino acid metabolism digestion, transamination and oxidative deamination, Urea cycle, ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids, and biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids.
3
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis DNA, RNA, base pairing, replication, transcription, and translation.
2.5
Nutrition and body fluids (blood and urine).

Chem. 309:
Lab
Topic
2
Matter – Atoms and Elements
- physical states and properties, changes
- chemical symbols and names symbols.
- the Periodic Table
- structure of an atom
- electron distribution
2
Measurements
- metric and SI units
- scientific notation
- dimensional analysis
- density, temperature scales, and heat energy
2
Chemical Bonds
- valence electrons, Lewis structures
- octet rule, ion formation, formation of ionic compounds
- polyatomic ions and their compounds, Lewis structures
- electronegativity and bond polarity in covalent structures
2
Chemical Reactions
- balancing equations
- the mole concept
- survey of stoichiometry calculations
- physical and chemical change
2
Energy and States of Matter
- measuring heat
- states of matter and energy changes
2
Gas Laws
- pressure and absolute temperature
- ideal gas behavior; qualitative description
- kinetic molecular theory concepts
2
Aqueous Systems
- nature of aqueous solutions
- solubility behavior of gases, liquids, and solids, arterial blood gases
- concentration effects: osmosis and dialysis
2
Acids, bases, and salts
- acid-base theory
- strong and weak electrolytes
- neutralization reactions
- ionization of water and pH
- buffers
- applications: blood buffers, acidosis, alkalosis
2
Hydrocarbons
- nomenclature of common hydrocarbons
- physical properties
- chemical reactions: combustion of hydrocarbons
- geometric isomers: cis-trans isomers of alkenes
- addition reactions of alkenes (hydrogenation)
2
Alcohols, ethers, and thiols
- nomenclature of common alcohols
- physical properties of each classification
- oxidation of alcohols.

2
Aldehydes and ketones
- nomenclature of common aldehydes and ketones
- physical properties
- reduction and oxidation reactions
2
Carboxylic acids
- nomenclature of common carboxylic acids
- physical properties
- acid-base reactivity
2
Amines
- nomenclature of common amines
- physical properties
- acid-base reactivity
3
Carbohydrates
- structure: cyclic and linear forms, mutarotation
- polysaccharide formation, stereochemistry
- functions and reactions of monosaccharides and polysaccharides
2
Esters and amides
- physical properties
- preparation
- hydrolysis and saponification
3
Proteins
- structural features
- side chain properties
- polypeptide structural features: primary structure, peptide bonds
- secondary structure: alpha helix, beta sheet
- tertiary structure and side chain reactivity
- quaternary structure
- denaturation
- protein function
- enzymes
2
Lipids
- waxes
- triacylglycerides: structure and reactivity, function
- steroids; structure and function
- phospholipids: structure and function
- cell membranes
2
Nucleic Acids
- structure of DNA and RNA
- DNA replication
- DNA transcription, RNA translation, and protein formation
- the genetic code
- mutations
3
Biochemical Energetics and Catabolic Processes
- structure and role of ATP
- NAD+, FAD, and biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions
- the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain
- glycolysis and anaerobic degradation of glucose
- degradation of fatty acids

Chem. 400:
Lec
Topic
4
Introduction to fundamental concepts: scientific method, measurements, significant figures, nomenclature review (symbols, formulas and naming), historical development of atomic theory, periodicity, mole concept, isotopes and percent abundance, and combustion analyses.
4
Review of chemical equations and stoichiometry including percent yields and limited reagents; single and double component mixture problems.
4
Explaining solute behavior at a molecular level in aqueous media including conductivity, writing ionic and net ionic equations, explaining what is occurring during reactions at a molecular level, identifying oxidation and reduction reactions and balancing complicated redox equations using the half cell method.
4
Acid base concepts (Arrhenius and Bronsted Lowry), pH calculations, titration curves of strong acids and bases and appropriate indicators, and predicting the direction of acid/base equilibria reactions based on acid base strengths including the leveling effect.
5
Empirical gas laws both conceptually and quantitatively, calculating gas density, molar masses, diffusion rates, molecular velocity, and kinetic molecular theory (KMT): explaining gas behavior in terms of KMT of gases.
5
Application of first law of thermodynamics including energy conservation with the following: thermochemistry and calorimetry including heat calculations for temperature changes and phase changes of pure substances, enthalpy, using enthalpies of formation reactions to calculate other enthalpies of reactions using Hess's Law, integrating heat from chemical changes using Hess's Law needed to cause temperature and phase changes of pure substances, and applying first law applications to energy use in the environment.
5
Atomic theory, Bohr atom and energy transition calculations, quantum states, electron configurations, periodicity, and trends.
5
Basic bonding theory of covalent and ionic compounds, Lewis dot structures, VSEPR and molecular shapes, bond, molecular polarity, and Valence Bond Theory.
5
Intermolecular forces, solutions, dilutions, concentrations in various units including molarity, molality, ppm, percents, solution process, and colligative properties.

Chem. 401:
Lec
Topic
2
Structure and Bonding Molecular Orbital Theory
2
Crystal Field Theory: Fe complex
4
Thermodynamics; laws of Thermodynamics, Free Entergy and Equilibrium
6
Chemical Kinetics: Rate Laws, Catalysis, Mechanisms, and Activation Energy
4
Introduction to equilibria including writing mass action expressions, recognizing Kw, Ka, Kb, Ksp equilibria expression and calculating Kc and Qc in order to determine directional shifts, calculating final equilibria concentration of species, using Le Chatelier's principle to explain effects of stresses on species concentrations, hydrolysis equations.
4
Weak acids and bases.
2
Polyprotic acids.
4
Hydrolysis and buffers.
5
Solubility and complex ion equilibria - solubility product principle, Ksp and qualitative Analysis.
2
Complex Ions, Kf, and Ca-EDTA complex
3
Electrochemistry-EMF, galvanic cells, Nernst Equation, equilibria, and electrolysis.
3
Organic Chemistry

Chem. 420:
Lec
Topic
3
Structure and bonding in organic molecules:
Electronegativity, bond polarity, resonance structures, structural formulas (including Lewis structures, condensed structures, and line-angle structures), acids and bases, molecular orbitals, hybridization and geometry, isomerism, intermolecular forces, and thin layer chromatography.
4
Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Structure, nomenclature, physical properties, and conformational analysis.
6
Spectroscopy: Theory and application of infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elements of unsaturation.
4
Chemical Reactivity: equilibrium, enthalpy, entropy, kinetics, and mechanism.
4
Free-radical halogenation of alkanes.
4
Stereoisomers: Chirality, optical activity, absolute configuration, and stereochemistry in chemical reactions
4
Alkyl halides: Structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactions, and SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 mechanisms.
4
Alkenes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, isomerism, synthesis, and reactions.
4
Alkynes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, acidity, synthesis, and reactions.
4
Alcohols: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, acidity, synthesis, and reactions.

Chem. 421:
Lec
Topic
3.5
Structure and stability of dienes, molecular orbital description of conjugated systems, reactions of dienes, pericyclic reactions, theory and use of ultraviolet spectroscopy.
2.5
Structure and properties of benzene, aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic compounds, applications of Huckel's Rule, aromaticity of ions and heterocyclic compounds, spectroscopy and nomenclature of aromatic compounds.
2.5
Reactions of benzene: halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, and Friedel-Crafts, activating and deactivating substituents and directing effects, nucleophilic aromatic substitution and side-chain reactions of benzene derivatives.
2.5
Ethers: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy, synthesis, and reactions.
2.5
Ketones and Aldehydes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy, synthesis, and reactions.
2.5
Mass Spectrometry: theory and application of mass spectroscopy and the study of the typical mass spectra of common organic functional groups.
2.5
Amines: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, basicity, spectroscopy, synthesis, and reactions, synthesis and reactions of aryl amines.
2.5
Carboxylic acids: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, acidity, spectroscopy, synthesis, and reactions.
2.5
Carboxylic acid derivatives: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy, synthesis, and reactions of acid halides, anhydrides, esters, amides, and nitriles.
2.5
Alpha Substitutions of Carbonyl compounds: enols and enolate ions, alpha halogenation, alkylation of enolates and enamines.
2.5
Condensation Reactions: Synthesis and mechanism involving the aldol condensation, crossed aldol, aldol cyclization, Claisen Condensation, crossed Claisen, Dieckmann condensation, malonic ester synthesis, acetoacetic ester synthesis, Michael reaction, Robinson Annulation.
4
Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy: theory and application.
2.5
Carbohydrates: classification and structure, epimers, cyclic structures, mutarotation, reactions of monosaccharides, reducing and non-reducing sugars, osazones, ether and ester formation, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
3
Lipids: introduction to the different classes of lipids, including waxes, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, prostaglandins, and terpenes.
3
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins: structure and stereochemistry of the alpha-amino acids, acid-base properties, isoelectric points, synthesis of amino acids, structure and nomenclature of peptides, peptide structure determination, solution and solid phase peptide synthesis, protein structure.

Chem. 423:
Lec
Topic
2
Structure and bonding; Acids and bases.
2
A comparison of inorganic and organic compounds
2
Functional group introduction; alkane nomenclature, properties, isomers, and conformational analyses
2
Introduction to reactions and alkene nomenclature, isomerism, reactions and mechanisms
2
Alkyne nomenclature and reactions
2
Infrared Spectroscopy
3
Benzene and Aromaticity
2
Stereochemistry and optical activity
3
Alkyl halides, nucleophilic substitution reactions and elimination reactions (E1 and E2)
3
Nomenclature, properties, synthesis, and reaction of alcohols, phenols, ethers, thiols, and sulfides.
3
Aldehydes and ketones; nomenclature, synthesis, reactions and properties.
3
Carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives (acid halides, acid anhydrides, esters, amides, nitriles). Nomenclature, properties, synthesis, reactions, and reactions.
2
Stereochemistry and molecular models
2
Keto-enol Tautomerism and the condensation reactions.
3
Naming, structure, properties, basicity, synthesis and reactions of amines.
2
Carbohydrate and amino acid structures and properties. Overview of peptides and proteins.
3
Lipid classification and soap




Chem. 310:
Lec
Topic
3
Math Foundation Introduction to the purpose and functional use of science in general - chemistry in particular. Also, includes a short introduction to the scientific method.
5
Mathematics as a basic tool of science and its application to measurement Develops a scientific approach to problem solving. Introduces the metric system and scientific notation.
4
Matter and Energy - Atomic Theory Surveys the historical development of the concept of matter. Introduces modern symbolism and formulas in terms of the fundamental laws of conservation of mass and definite composition. Includes a basic survey of the classifications of matter and a study of the interaction of matter.
4
Periodicity - Introduces the historical development of periodic classification and its significance in the interpretation of chemical data. Surveys the trends associated with the Periodic Table.
5
Chemical Composition - Nomenclature - Develops the concept of empirical formulas, molecular formulas, percent composition, atom, mole, and mass relationships. Includes a study of chemical formulas (names, symbols) and the language used to describe them.
4
Chemical Equations - Introduces common reaction types and tools necessary to predict the products and balance these reactions.
5
Stiochiometry - Stoichiometric Calculations - Introduces mole mole relationships, mole mass, and mass mass relationships for chemical reactions and corresponding calculations. Also includes introduction to mole volume relationships and mass volume relationships for gases at standard conditions with calculations.
3
Chemical Bonding - Studies covalent and ionic bonding and the properties associated with each. Introduces skills necessary to draw electron dot structures for atoms and compounds. Introduces skills necessary to assign oxidation numbers to an atom present in compounds or ions.
5
Solutions - Acids, Bases, Salts - For solutions, introduces percent by weight and by volume and molarity and associated calculations. Covers theories of acids and bases. pH (as an application of logarithms) and associated calculations. Introduces the concepts of strong, weak, and non electrolytes and introductory skills for writing ionic and net ionic equations.
3

Gas Laws - Studies the relationships between temperature, pressure, and volume for gases. Includes study of the Molecular Theory of Gases, Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Gay Lussac's Law, Combined Gas Law, Ideal Gas Equation, molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Hypothesis, and associated calculations.

 

Learning Outcomes and Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to: